Energy performance evaluation of a net plus-energy residential building with grid-connected photovoltaic system in Brazil

Giovani Almeida Dávi, Estefanía Caamaño-Martín, Ricardo Rüther, Juan Solano
Energy and Buildings

The proposition of Net Plus-energy Buildings (NPEB) leads to the need to carry out studies of load matching in contrast with the grid impacts of distributed generation (DG). This paper performs simulations with the EnergyPlus software tool concerning a NPEB operating in four Brazilian metropolitan areas. The analyses include photovoltaic (PV) performance parameters and Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators (LMGI). New grid impact indicators are defined in order to study the impacts of DG in the power grid. In the second stage, the work investigates economic aspects under net metering supporting. Results show the annual amount of electrical demand covered by PV varies from 29 to 51% with more potential in situations with higher PV production and higher cooling load, and the annual PV electricity that supplies the loads varies from 24 to 36% according to the seasonal variations of PV-load correlation. The levels of exported electricity into the grid are high in Brazil with annual mean power peaks surrounding 0.7 but can surpass 0.8 in the sunniest periods. The economy demonstrates the building achieves grid parity from 6 to 18% discount rates and the payback time is given for different scenarios of investment costs, discount rates and electricity tariffs.