The electrical resistance showerhead is the water heating technology used in over 70% of the Brazilian dwellings. These high power (5–8 kW are typical) instant heating devices contribute significantly to the demand peak in the early evening, and are a major burden to distribution utilities in Brazil. The objective of this paper is to define consumer showering patterns, and analyze the influence of the power demand measurement time resolution on the potential of peak time power demand reduction provided by Domestic Solar Hot Water (DSHW) systems. Results show that the measurement of electrical power demand in a 15-min interval is not adequate to evaluate and verify the benefits provided by the use of DSHW systems, because it heavily underestimates the active power demand reduction at peak hours. This work suggests that a 1-min time resolution can be considered appropriate to assess the potential impacts caused by the use of DSHW systems on the peak hours demand reduction.
Helena F. Naspolini, Ricardo Rüther